In Melbourne, Australia, all 77, trees have their own email address. The Idea In , the city council in Melbourne, Australia decided to map every tree in the city and assign each its own ID number and email tree-mail? With drought conditions damaging trees throughout the city sound familiar? In fact, the city has received about 3, notes since the program began. You must get these messages all the time. Sincerest apologies. Here in the City of Trees, not only is the drought a real threat to our urban forest, but so is Dutch elm disease.
What happened while the tree lived?
For example, one of the trees in Capitol Park was only feet away when an assassination attempt on President Gerald Ford took place in The Players While the city council in Melbourne took the lead there, the Sacramento Tree Foundation, run by former city councilman Ray Tretheway, is the obvious choice to shepherd such a project here. Given time, undoubtedly we would find hundreds more. But we still wouldn't have reached the end. So we rest our case and go on to describe some mechanisms by which, in any small-business growth setting, the multiplier effect unfolds.
The High-Stakers Individuals whose yield from one small-business investment enables them to fund additional small businesses. Where did the hundreds of millions of dollars they later cashed out with come from? When a start-up is founded and flourishes, capital is minted from thin air. The phenomenon can go on forever, as investors take profits and reapply them to founding more new businesses, each time by bigger multipliers than the last.
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The Bankrolled Individuals who sell their stock holdings or save income to get enough money to capitalize their own start-ups. Thus was set in motion a major dynamic of the ME: internally propagated money. But even at the humblest company that proffers options to lure key people, some recipients are more equal than others.
Eased out of Apple in , cofounder Jobs gradually shed some 6 million shares of Apple stock.
Eventually, H. Not every entrepreneurial casher-out is motivated to build an operating business. Marketing executive Paul Dali threw his chips into 3I, a venture-capital firm. Karyn Frances Gray threw hers into watercolors and is now a nationally known painter. And here's what happens when everybody in a company qualifies for options: ex-secretary Louise Stanley converted a relatively modest share of Apple into Details, a retail merchandiser.
The Experiential M. In the early years of a small business, proceedings are mainly ad hoc. No harm done: management experiments that turn out not to work are paid for by experiments that do. CEO Charles W.
Berger, who started as Apple's treasurer in at 29 and was promoted to its senior team by age The Technicians Individuals who acquire specialized product or service know-how and establish new businesses based on it. As any start-up develops its own ways of doing things, the employees who do them gain proprietary skills whether having to do with computer technology, truck-chassis assembly, or the cooking of blackened redfish that serve as valuable currency for founding their own companies.
The impetus to branch out often comes when an employee's personal growth outpaces his or her employer's growth. Founded by three former Apple technologists, futuristic research-and-development firm General Magic "is an excellent example," says Albert Eisenstat, now Apple's executive vice-president, "of what happens when Apple people provide an outlet on their own. The Inspired Individuals stimulated by the start-up activity of others to start a business of their own. The pull of someone else's leaving to go into business encourages stay-behinds to ponder the possibility of doing so themselves.
Atari founder Nolan Bushnell calls it the "Existence Proof. Everybody who lives in Silicon Valley knows somebody who's made a lot of money, and they can see he's smart, but he's not that smart. People with normal aspirations, normal education, normal capabilities start thinking maybe they can do it, too. The minute that happens, a new world opens up. The Opportunists Individuals who start businesses to capture the complementary industrial and consumer markets that a growth company introduces. We rolled out our first product simultaneously with the first spurt of the Mac in late We had back orders for 20, units the day we started shipping.
Macworld Exposition, a trade-show manager, stages two Apple-oriented consumer expositions a year, one on each coast. In the August expo, companies rented booths. Among the countless enterprises born to offer products or services in the market Apple created -- peripheral-equipment makers, newsletter publishers, magazines, trade shows, and the like -- is MacTemps Inc. The Camp Followers Individuals who found companies to provide goods and services to a core company. The lawyers, public-relations firms, accountants, travel agencies, and such that administer to a growing start-up usually are preexisting enterprises that expand to accommodate the new business.
Vigorous growth, however, stimulates the genesis of a fresh entourage. Two years after setting up shop -- known as Kim's Khocolate -- in her mother's kitchen, year-old Kim Merritt began selling custom-made confectioneries to Apple's company store. A year later, in , Apple ordered 77, chocolate Macs for a direct-mail campaign.
The order paid down two years of debt and kept the flabbergasted Merritt in business. For years, massagers from Pacific Health Systems would come in to rub the necks of tired Apple employees -- until outside shareholders put a stop to it. Knickknack broker Wood Associates Inc. The solution: morale boosters like pens, coffee cups, and jackets. Maybe Markkula was right after all in suggesting we calculate taxes. Despite multiplier-effect researchers on both coasts and the help of enthusiastic volunteers, Inc.
Whatever the ultimate numbers are, they turned out to be magnitudes larger than anyone could anticipate. Don't forget -- the farmer who got rich selling his prune orchard to Apple probably buys his Ferraris down the street; either that, or he started a new business himself.
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Whichever, it's one more branch. Reporting contributed by Abby Christopher. Note: financial references are to fiscal year ; market values are as of June 15, Shawn Miller, 36, hardly considered herself a natural. But after two kids and five years in sales and marketing for Apple, she encountered a not-so-simple problem at home: she couldn't find a nanny. Whereas Miller the mother working hour weeks might have panicked, Miller the Apple marketer whispered, Eureka! Apple had, after all, trained her to look for new markets -- and she knew that other women throughout Silicon Valley shared her child-care troubles.
But beyond helping her develop that marketer's eye for opportunity, Apple had equipped Miller -- who in founded a nanny-placement service, I Love My Nanny, based in San Jose, Calif. Thanks to Apple's generous training program, "I got everything I needed to run my own business," she says. Evidently, latent upstarts like Miller gained more than hard skills. Apple engendered in its employees an entire creed of self-assurance. And you were given enormous power and encouragement to try. The message was always, Go for it.
Go she did. Miller has surpassed the six-figure income she left behind at Apple, as I Love My Nanny has doubled in revenues each year since its inception, thanks in part to a steady flow of business from who else?
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Apple employees themselves. At 27, Art Mellor already had been dreaming of his own start-up for years. All he lacked was an idea. And maybe an iota of experience. OK, perhaps the first clue about how to run a business, too. Mellor had a simple plan: "I decided to get a job at the smallest company that would hire me. They said, 'You're hired.john-und.sandra-gaertner.de/te-necesito-nena-qudate-conmigo.php
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By his own account, three years at Cayman taught Mellor more about running a business than he would have learned from any business school he might have overpaid for. Just what did he learn? How to hire, select partners, set up operations, and watch his cash, to mention a few more. He stumbled across a market and a product as well. Mellor and his partners have been running Midnight Networks Inc. It would be hard to find ways Jeremy Jaech, the founder of Seattle software maker Shapeware, wasn't entrepreneurially enabled by his five years with fast-growing Apple descendant Aldus Corp.
Jaech, 38, was bank- rolled he seeded Shapeware with proceeds from his sale of Aldus stock , inspired "I got to believing I could do it. Watching Aldus's success, being part of it, I didn't have doubts" , and experientially M. Even more, he was able during his Aldus stint to acquire specialized knowledge of the software marketplace -- knowledge that Shapeware now trades on.
After starting in product development and moving through marketing, Jaech ended up assessing other companies' technologies with then Aldus colleague and now Shapeware cofounder Ted Johnson. Repeatedly going through that evaluation process gave me a real feel for what products I might be able to build and sell myself. I learned what was viable and what was not -- not just from the technology or engineering standpoint but from the market perspective.
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Is there a customer? You do that enough, and ultimately you feel you can start your own software business and create marketable products," says Jaech. Which he and Johnson have done. The Beginning. You could count the million computers sitting atop desks from Boston to Bombay and say this is what Steven Jobs wrought.
But Apple didn't simply invent the personal computer, revolutionize an industry, and create thousands of jobs.